Mendelian Genetics
  1. Why is Gregor Mendel often referred to as the "Founder of Modern Genetics"?
  2. What ratios of offspring arise in each of the generations (F1 and F2) in a typical monohybrid cross?
  3. Understand the following ideas related to Mendel's Law of Segregation:
  4. Apply Mendel's Law of Segregation to an actual monohybrid cross for a given trait. What is the phenotype and genotype (i.e. homozygous dominant, homozygous recessive, heterozygous) of the parents and offspring in the crosses?  What phenotypic and genotypic ratios result from a basic monohybrid cross?
  5. What is a test cross?  Why might a geneticist do a test cross?
  6. What is a dihybrid cross?  What phenotypic ratios result from a Mendelian dihybrid cross?  Apply Mendel's Law of Independent Assortment to an actual dihybrid cross.  If two traits "assort" or are inherited independently, what does this mean in terms of the relative location of their loci on chromosomes, and how they "assort" during meiosis?
  7. How do Mendel's laws of inheritance reflect the specific application of the rules of probability?  Be able to apply these laws of inheritance and rules of probability to genetics problems (see problems at the end of this chapter).
  8. Be able to extend Mendelian genetic principles to understand and do genetics problems related to alternative patterns not reported by Mendel:
  9. What is the difference between dominance and recessiveness at both the organismal and molecular level?
  10. What else determines phenotype besides genotype?
  11. Be familiar with some human genetic disorders that follow Mendelian patterns of inheritance (cystic fibrosis, Tay-Sachs, Sickle Cell Anemia).  Why are lethal or deleterious dominant alleles so rare in populations?
  12. What are some ways of testing a fetus for genetic disorders?