Path from Gene to Protein
1. What is the one
gene - one polypeptide hypothesis?
Discuss the early experimental evidence (the work of Beadle and Tatum)
that supported this hypothesis.
2. Review the
structure of RNA. How is
it different from that of DNA?
3. How are genes
transcribed into a mRNA transcript?
modifications must the primary mRNA transcript
undergo before it can be translated?
- Discuss the various functions of the proteins and enzymes (transcription
factors, RNA polymerases) involved in transcription.
what direction does RNA transcription occur (i.e. 5’ to 3’ or 3’ to 5’
on the growing transcript)?
- How does transcription differ from DNA replication? How are
- What are the functions of various DNA sequences that regulate
(promoters, enhancers, terminators)?
5. Describe the nature of the genetic
- Discuss the significance of alterations to the ends of the mRNA
(capping and addition of a poly(A) tail).
- Discuss RNA splicing (intron removal and splicing
- What is the function of the mature mRNA transcript?
6. Describe the
process of translation.
- What is a codon? How are codons that code for the
acid different/similar? What is the function of codons that don’t
code for any amino acids?
- Discuss some of the classic experiments which led to an
the nature of the code and the "meaning" of individual codons.
- What is the significance of the nearly universal nature to the
code amongst all living organisms?
7. Describe the
general characteristics of mutations.
- Describe the structure of a ribosome and tRNA as
to translation. What is an anticodon?
- How are ribosomes, tRNA, and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase
amino acids into proteins?
- How is translation initiated? Describe chain elongation and
- What is a polyribosome?
- How does translation of polypeptides destined for secretion from
or for inclusion into endomembrane organelles differ from translation
polypeptides destined for use in the cytosol?
- How do point mutations occur?
- How are substitution mutations different from insertion
or deletion mutations? What is meant by a frame shift
What are some possible effects of these mutations on the protein
of a gene?
- What is a mutagen?