Origin of Species

1. Compare and contrast cladogenesis and anagenesis.  Relate these concepts to Darwinian evolution and the development of diversity.

2. What is macroevolution?  What are some explanations for the origin of evolutionary novelties that
separate taxa beyond the species level?

3. What is the biological species concept?  What are the strengths and weaknesses of this definition?  What are some other definitions or concepts of a species?  How are they different from each other?

4. What kinds of reproductive isolating mechanisms (barriers) can emerge to prevent members of
different species from interbreeding?

5. Compare and contrast the allopatric and sympatric models of speciation.  What is the relative importance of each in the evolution of animals and plants?  Be familiar with the concept of adaptive radiation, and why island archipelagoes and other areas that promote geographic isolation are ideally suited to promote speciation.

6. Compare and contrast the punctuated equilibrium (PE) theory of evolution with that of the
gradualism (G) theory.  How would a PE supporter explain the rarity of smooth transitional fossil forms in the fossil record?  How would a G supporter counter this argument?