Plant Diversity

1. What are the key features that separate the plant kingdom  from other kingdoms of organisms?

2.  How did the following adaptations promote the plant colonization of terrestrial habitats?

3.  Describe the adaptive significance of the next three major steps (vascular tissue, seeds, flowers) in the evolution of diversity in the plant kingdom.  What extant divisions are associated with each stage of evolution?

4. Understand the concept of alternation of generations as it applies to the plant kingdom.

5. What features characterize the Bryophytes (D. Bryophta (mosses), D. Hepatophyta (liverworts) D. Anthocerophyta (hornworts) )?  Be able to outline the life cycle of the mosses.

6. Be able to outline the life cycle of the seedless vascular plants (D. Pterophyta (ferns), D. Lycophyta (club mosses), D. Sphenophyta (horsetails)).  Compare and contrast the life cycles of seedless vascular plants and bryophytes with respect to a) dispersal, b) gamete transport, c) dominant stage in the life cycle.

7. Which types of plants were the major components of the Carboniferous forests?  What conditions existed during this geologic period that promoted the formation of coal?

8. Describe the major reproductive adaptations observed in the seed-bearing plants (reduced gametophytes, dispersed pollen, retained female gametophyte, seeds).   What is the adaptive significance of each?

9. Describe the structural and reproductive structures of the gymnosperms (D. Coniferophyta (conifers), D. Cycadophyta, D. Ginkophyta, D. Gnetophyta).  Outline the development of the male and female gametophytes in gymnosperms.

10. How did the changing environmental conditions near the end of the Paleozoic promote the diversification of gymnosperms.

11. What reproductive advantages are found only in the angiosperms (D. Anthophyta)?  What is their adaptive significance?

12. Diagram the structure of a typical flower.  What are common functions of each part?

13. Outline the development of the male and female gametophyte in angiosperms.  How does the development of the gametophyte generation differ from that of  gymnosperms?

14. Define coevolution in the context of the plant kingdom.

15. What is the difference between pollination and fertilization?  What is meant by double fertilization?  Which groups of plants exhibit double fertilization?

16. What was the impact of the development of the plant kingdom on atmospheric carbon dioxide?  How did this change during the Carboniferous period?

17. What are some advantages of  maintaining the diversity of the plant kingdom?