Animal Nutrition

1)  Animals are chemoheterotrophs.  What does this mean?  What are the three major metabolic roles of food?

2)  Describe the different adaptations that have evolved in animals with respect to:

3)  Trace the pathway of a morsel of food through the digestive tract of a mammal.  Discuss the structure and function of each of the parts of the alimentary canal (mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine (villi and micrvilli), large intestine (a.k.a. colon), and anus).

4)  Compare and contrast the digestive tract of insects and birds to that of mammals.  Which structures have analogous functions?

5)  What roles do the pancreas and liver play in digestion?

6)  What structural differences are there between the alimentary canals of carnivores and herbivores?  What is the adaptive significance of these differences?

7)    If animals lack the enzyme that digests cellulose, how then do grazing herbivores obtain nutrition from cellulose?