1) Describe the
diversity of basic mechanisms by
animals move molecules (gases, nutrients, waste) throughout their
2) Compare and
contrast an open circulatory
and closed circulatory system with respect to anatomy and
do most large and endothermic animals have a closed circulatory
Describe the evolutionary trends among animals associated with internal
transport systems as they relate to motility, metabolism, and
3) Compare and
contrast the anatomy of the cardiovascular
system in each of the following groups of vertebrates: fishes,
and amphibians, birds and mammals. Explain the physiological
of each of these circulatory systems to metabolic rate and activity
of the animal.
4) Describe the
pathway of blood through the
cardiovascular system, including the heart (chambers and valves),
and systemic circuits. What is systole? Diastole?
What is the condition (open vs. closed) of the heart valves during each
phase of the heart cycle?
5) Describe the
electrical excitation of the heart
by nodal tissue. Describe the spread of electrical
during both the systolic and diastolic phases of heart muscle
What controls the rate of impulse production by nodal tissue? How
does sympathetic and parasympathetic stimulation affect nodal tissue?
6) Describe the basic
structure of arteries,
and capillaries. How are capillaries different from other
blood vessels? Describe the relationship between blood volume and
blood pressure? Describe the relationship between blood flow
and cross-sectional area of blood vessels.
7) What are pre-capillary
is their function in the body?
8) Describe the 3
mechanisms of exchange of
gases, waste, etc... between the blood in capillaries and surrounding
fluid. If blood pressure is constantly filtering fluid from
how does blood volume remain constant? What is the function of
system and how does it act to maintain blood volume? What
cause fluids to accumulate outside the circulatory system?
9) What is blood
plasma? What kinds
molecules do we find dissolved in blood plasma? Why does blood
have a much higher concentration of proteins than interstitial fluid?
10) What are the
“cellular elements” of the
Which is most numerous? What is the BASIC function of each of
elements? What is a stem cell? Where might one find them?
11) What is
What are the factors that contribute to these diseases? What role
does hypertension play in atherosclerosis and
In heart attacks?
12) Describe the
diversity of types of gas
organs used by aquatic and terrestrial animals.
13) What are the
and disadvantages of using water as the respiratory medium? How
the gas exchange organs of aquatic animals counteract these
What do we mean by counter-current exchange and how does it
the efficiency of gills of fishes? What are the
and disadvantages of using air as a respiratory medium? How do the gas
exchange organs of terrestrial animals counteract these disadvantages?
14) Describe the
pathway of air through the
track of a mammal. What are alveoli? Describe the
and function of alveoli and the capillaries that surround
How do mammals breathe (i.e. what draws air into and pushes air out of
15) Compare and
in birds to that of mammals with respect to how the lungs of birds
oxygenation of blood.
16) What is partial
pressure and how does
influence the loading and unloading of respiratory gases?
17) Describe the
general structure and function of
the respiratory pigment - hemoglobin. What is the oxygen
curve and what factors alter hemoglobin’s affinity for oxygen?
18) How is carbon
dioxide transported in the
19) What are some adaptations the diving mammals have that allow them to stay under water for long periods of time?