Endocrine System

1.  What do the nervous and endocrine systems have in common?

2.  What is a signal molecule?

3. Describe some different types of signal molecules, both local and non-local.

4. Describe two possible mechanisms of hormone action?

5. Not all hormones act on all organs, for instance, ADH, a protein hormone, alters the activity of some kidney cells. Growth hormone (GH), also a protein hormone, has no effect on kidney function. Explain this.

6. What permits a single hormone to have different effects on different organs?

7. Explain the statement “all hormones work through negative feedback systems”.
How does this help maintain homeostasis?

8. What is the role of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland in vertebrates? How does the hypothalamus regulate pituitary function?

9. What is the difference between a posterior pituitary hormone and an anterior pituitary hormone?

10. Describe some functions of the pineal gland in mammals.

11. What is the role of the thyroid gland? If you are a surgeon, why must you be extra careful when removing thyroid tissue?

12. The pancreas secretes both insulin and glucagon which are termed antagonists with respect to each other.  Explain what this means and how it helps maintain homeostasis within the body.

13. What endocrine gland plays a major role in stress?

14. Define the terms glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid.

15. What is an androgen?

16. What signal molecules control the release of the sex steroid hormones?