Sensory and Motor Systems
1. What is the difference between sensation
2. Define a sensory receptor.
3. How does signal transduction generate a receptor
4. Some sensory receptors are said to adapt. Define adaptation.
5. Sensory receptors are categorized by the stimulus
type) to which they are most sensitive. Name some of these
categories and explain their mechanism of action.
6. Why would different kinds of animals have different types
Hearing and Balance
- Photoreceptors are sensitive to light energy.
- Name some different types of photoreceptor systems found in
- How do compound eyes differ from single lens eyes?
- Sketch the human eye.
- Where are the photoreceptors in the human eye found?
- What are the differences between rods and cones?
- How does rhodopsin transduce light energy into action potentials?
- Why is lateral inhibition important to our visual system?
Smell and Taste
- List the functions of the ear.
- Sketch the ear. Include outer, middle, and inner segments.
- Where does sound transduction occur?
- What are the functions of the utricle and saccule?
- Why is the lateral line system important to fish?
- What do otoliths and statoliths have in common?
- What types of receptors are important in the determination of smell
7. What is the difference between
movement and locomotion?
8. What are some examples of
9. Why do many animals have skeletons?
10. List the different types of
skeletons present in animals
11. Why do we need antagonistic pairs of muscle to have
12. List the subunits of a skeletal
13. Draw and label a sarcomere.
14. What proteins are important in
contraction and its regulation?
15. Explain the sliding-filament theory of muscle contraction
16. Actin and myosin
bind spontaneously but this does
not happen in a muscle at rest.
17. What is a twitch?
- What proteins regulate the interaction between actin and
- Explain the role of the calcium ion in the control of
- What controls the release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic
18. What is meant by the phrase “ a
twitch is an all-or none event”?
19. If a twitch is an all-or-none
event, how do we ensure that the
tension generated by the muscle is equal to the to the load to
20. What is meant by
21. How is muscle adapted for
different activities such as weight
versus long distance running?
22. What do skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscles have
in common? What are some of their differences?