Deforestation/Forest Issues

Problems/Case Studies

"Cancer Cure or Conservation" Pauline A. Lizotte, Valencia Community College, and Gretchen E. Knapp, Illinois State University. State University of New York at Buffalo's National Center for Case Study Teaching
This case is based on the controversies surrounding harvesting of the Pacific yew from 1989 to 1997 to develop paclitaxel (Taxol), a revolutionary anti-cancer drug. The case was designed to expose students to basic conservation biology concepts by examining competing needs among scientists and other stakeholders in a real-life science-and-society scenario.
Developed for a undergraduate introductory biology course for non-majors, the case could also be used in an environmental science course or in a course on the impact of science and technology on society.

"The Deforestation of the Amazon: A Case Study in Understanding Ecosystems and Their Value". Phil Camill, Carleton College. State University of New York at Buffalo's National Center for Case Study Teaching
In this case, students examine tropical deforestation in the Amazon from the perspective of three dominant stakeholders in the region: a peasant farmer, a logger, and an environmentalist. As part of the exercise, students perform a cost-cost analysis of clearing a plot of tropical forest in the Amazon from the perspective of one of these stakeholder groups.
Developed for a course in global change biology, this case could also be used in courses on general ecology, environmental science, environmental ethics, environmental policy, and environmental/ecological economics.

"Unveiling the Carboniferous".  Biological Inquiry:  A workbook of investigative cases.  Waterman, Margaret, and Stanley, Ethel.  Campbell-Reese. pp.  59-70.
Students learn about the geological production of coal, the cooling and warming of earth's climate, glaciation, and the evolution of plants.  Internal fertilization and reproductive strategies are introduced as students discover ways that evolution increased diversity.  Available in resource cabinet outside Rm. 207 SCIC.

"Burning Issues".  John S. Peters.  College of Charleston National and local (Francis Marion NF) forest fire management policy. 
        Other Burning Issues problem resources:
CNN Video Clips - available in the resource cabinet outside Rm. 207 SCIC

"Deforestation" (Japan) : Environmental Science 5th Ed. CNN Ed (2:52 min)
Nearly 30 years ago, Japan experienced a booming economy and population growth, partly due to tariff reductions on imports.  Today, about 2% of the Earth's population resides in Japan, and the economy isn't as strong as it was in previous years.  However, that hasn’t stopped the large population growth.  Japan consumes nearly 1/3 of the timber resources that are bought and sold in international markets, making Japan one of the greatest contributors to global deforestation.  Deforestation, known as the cutting or removal of trees from a forest without adequate replacement, is a major issue that Japanese officials have tried to address.  The large percentage of timber usage is attributed to the building of over 1 million new homes with wood products each year.  In previous years, Japan depended on tropical rainforests from Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines for wood products.  After many years of overusing the forests of the South Pacific, Japan has moved on to using wood products from temperate forests in North and South America, Russia, and Australia.  Some Japanese officials believe that they are helping to save the environment from global deforestation since they have abandoned logging operations in tropical forests.  Environmentalists disagree, reasoning that no matter where in the world you cut timber it still causes deforestation.  The worksheet includes the URL to the World Trade Organization web site.  (Student worksheet provided on CD)

"Deforestation" (Cardamom Mountains of Cambodia): Environmental Science 6th Ed. CNN Ed (2:35 min)
The Cardamom Mountains are home to many of Cambodia's rare and endangered species such as the Indochinese tiger, Asian elephants, and the Malaysian sun bear.  Until recently, the area was subject to uncontrolled deforestation and widespread poaching.  In 2002, Prime Minister Hun Sen, along with the Cambodian government, signed into law the creation of the Central Cardamoms Protected Forest, a 1,000,000 acre (400,000 hectare) area in Cambodia's Central Cardamom Mountains.  When added to the existing two wildlife sanctuaries (Mt. Samkos Wildlife Sanctuary and Mt. Aural Wildlife Sanctuary), the total land under protection exceeded 2,200,000 acres (1,000,000 hectares), an area the size of Yellowstone National Park.  Prior to the protected forest, the Cardamoms were home to the Khmer Rouge until their downfall in 1998.  After 1998, the area was designated to logging companies, but in January 2001, the Cambodian government banned commercial logging.  Illegal logging and wildlife poaching still threaten the protected area; however, the Cambodian government assigned rangers and military police to actively monitor and enforce the laws of the protected areas.  (Student worksheet provided on CD)

"Deforestation" (Global Forest Watch): Environmental Science 7th Ed. CNN Ed (2:18)
Nearly 10 years after the Rio Earth Summit and over 32 years since the first Earth Day, researchers are finding that the growing deforestation crisis is more severe than previously thought. Deforestation, known as the cutting or removal of trees from a forest area without adequate replacement, is a growing crisis throughout the world. According to the World Resources Institute (WRI) initiative Global Forest Watch, a vast amount of the world's remaining old growth and primary forests are disappearing, and at the current rate of destruction, many believe nearly 40% of the world's forests will be gone within 10 to 20 years. In Indonesia, illegal logging has caused the decline of half of its forests in the past 50 years. In other areas, such as Russia, only one-quarter of the taiga remains undisturbed. The worksheet contains the URL for the Global Forest Watch website.  (Student worksheet provided on CD)

"Land Management": Environmental Science 7th Ed. CNN Ed (1:45)
Wildfires can be both essential to natural ecosystems and dangerous to human life and property. During 2002, the government spent nearly $1 billion fighting forest fires that consumed almost seven million acres of U.S. federally managed forests, including 35,000 acres in New Mexico, 42,000 acres in Alaska, and 42,000 acres in Arizona. To prevent further wildfire destruction, the Bush administration proposed the Healthy Forests Initiative, which plans to prevent wildfire destruction by expediting forest-thinning and restoration projects. The plan proposes the immediate thinning of backcountry forests by easing regulatory restrictions and making it harder for environmentalists to stop or delay forest-thinning projects. Environmental groups believe that the Bush plan will only prevent the public from changing or appealing logging decisions. The worksheet includes the URL for the White House website.  (Student worksheet provided on CD)

"Healthy Forests Initiative": Environmental Science 6th Ed. CNN (2:27 min)
Wildfires can be both essential to natural ecosystems and dangerous to human life and property.  Currently, there are over 470 million acres of U.S. federally managed forest, and at least 190 million acres are considered at risk.  During 2002, the U.S. learned of this risk as the Biscuit fire burned over ½ million acres in southern Oregon, and the national total exceeded over 6.5 million acres of U.S. forest land burned.  To prevent further wildfire destruction, President George W. Bush proposed to Congress a law to expedite forest thinning and restoration projects, known as the Healthy Forests Initiative.  The plan proposes the immediate thinning of backcountry forests by easing regulatory restrictions and making it harder for environmentalists to stop or delay that work.  Environmental groups believe that the Bush plan only prevents any chance of the public changing or appealing any logging decisions.  The worksheet includes the URL for the White House website. (Student worksheet provided on CD)

"Sudden Oak Death": Biology 6th Ed. CNN Ed 2002 (1:56)
Scientists have identified the organism causing oak deaths in California as a species of Phytophthora, but many questions remain. It is not known how the disease is spread, if spores can survive in the soil, or how long it persists in dead wood. Scientists do know that infection makes trees vulnerable to beetles and to other fungi, and that it is devastating oak woodlands. The dead trees are also creating a fire hazard. The worksheet includes the URL for the University of California at Davis Cooperative Extension site about sudden oak death. (Student worksheet provided on CD)

Francis Marion NF/Longleaf Pine Ecosystems and Forest Fires Articles

"What's at Stake in Forest Plan-Locals Fear Loss of Habitat and Beauty" Bartelme, Tony. The Post and Courier. 26 March 2006
The federal government has plans to sell thousands of acres of national forest. This article addresses the concerns of the public and of scientists. There is worry about how this will effect the local economy and also how some protective species will be effected.

Under Fire - The Francis Marion National Forest is a place of beauty and mystery, but outside forces threaten to overwhelm this treasure" Bartelme, Tony. The Post and Courier. 16 October 2005.

This article addresses the need to burn The Francis Marion regularly. It addresses the benefits and how this burning could bring the majestic long leaf pine forest back. Many species of animals and plants may become extinct if the controlled burning does not occur. But there are also problems that occur during burns, such as car accidents because of smoke, private property damage, and there is also the possibility that the fire can become uncontrolled.

"Bush plan to sell acreage in national forest draws fire AH:  Push to sell tracts in Francis Marion, other US forests sparks debate".  Bartelme, T.   Post and Courier, Feb 15, 2006. 
"The Bush administration wants to sell a fraction of America's public forestland, including less than 1 percent of the Francis Marion National Forest. But the proposal has touched off intense political brush fires here and across the country."

"Leaders pledge to protect national forest".  Bartelme, T and Walker T. Post and Courier, November 10, 2005. 

"MOUNT PLEASANT-Local leaders are considering a "blood pact" to stop future annexations, sewer lines and other measures that might encourage development between Mount Pleasant and the Francis Marion National Forest - a rare case of rivals cooperating on a potentially contentious land-use issue.  More than 200 people packed Mount Pleasant Town Hall Tuesday night to support efforts to protect this rural area from urban sprawl, and town officials responded by postponing plans that could lead to future annexations."

"The relation of understory grasses in longleaf pine ecosystems to fire and geography".  Kaplan, JA.  2005 UNC Chapel Hill - Student Research Paper
"Longleaf pine forests are a fire-dependent community that once dominated the southeast.  In order to manage the remaining fragments, it is important to consider the history of the area and the role of fire throughout history.  One of the main fuels for ground fires in longleaf pine forests are the grass species of the understory community, and the function and ecology of these grasses influence the trajectory of the forest ecosystem.  There are, however, areas within the longleaf range that lack the dominant grass species, wiregrass (Aristida stricta), from either natural gaps in wiregrass distribution or from the disappearance of wiregrass through disturbance.  With the arrival of the Europeans, the longleaf forest was described as "park-like", with open midstories, grassy understories, and large, sparse trees.  However, the condition of these forests was greatly modified by Native Americans for thousands of years with the use of intentional fires for hunting and farming.  The influence of fire, disturbance, and agriculture of Native Americans, as well as the later European settlers affected the understory diversity in general, the dominance of grass species in particular, and the fire dynamics in the longleaf areas."

"Fire in longleaf pine stand management:  An economic analysis".  Busby, RL, and Hodges, DG.  Proceedings of the Soceity of American Foresters 1999 Convention Portland, OR.
"A simulation analysis of the economics of using prescribed fire as a forest management tool in the management of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) plantations was conducted.  A management regime using frequent prescribed fire was compared to management regimes involving fertilization and chemical release, chemical control, and mechanical control.  Determining the cost-effectiveness of the management alternatives was accomplished by estimating the growth response needed to recover the costs associated with the silvicultural treatments and making comparisons among the alternatives.  The results show prescribed fire would require the least growth response to pay for the expenses required to implement the alternatives.  Fire retained its cost-effectiveness for a range of rotation lengths and sawtimber stumpage values."

"Under fire AH:  The Francis Marion National Forest is a place of beauty and mystery, but outside forces threaten to overwhelm this treasure."  Bartelme, T.  Post and Courier, March 2006.
Twomey runs the Francis Marion's burn program for the U.S. Forest Service, and he knows this forest needs fire to live. Without fire, many of its plants and animals will vanish, as they have in so many other places in the South. He knows fire makes the Francis Marion one of the rarest forests in the country. But he also knows that wildfires are like untamed animals; they're too dangerous to be around people. And the Francis Marion National Forest is increasingly surrounded by people and their cars and homes."

"Special report road to controversy AH:  A road project fires debate about future of the Francis Marion National Forest Part 2 of 4".  Bartelme, T.  Post and Courier, Oct 17, 2005.
"Even though Steed Creek Road is one of the least traveled routes in Charleston and Berkeley counties, federal and state engineers are planning a $10 million to $12 million upgrade. If completed, this new Steed Creek Road will have the same wide lanes and paved shoulders as the state's busiest high-speed highways.It also will plunge a dagger into the heart of the Francis Marion National Forest, conservation groups say. They fear it will draw more traffic into the forest and hurt efforts to burn the area on a regular basis. They say the project violates the federal Endangered Species Act. Lawsuits are in the wind."

"Special Report Pressure Point AH:  Growth is marching into the Francis Marion National Forest Part 3 of 4".   Bartelme, T.  Post and Courier, October 18, 2005.  

"Builders and investors are quietly snapping up thousands of acres inside the Francis Marion National Forest - a land rush that threatens efforts to save endangered species and restore what biologists say is one of the most unique forests in the country."

"Awendaw Mayor wary of area pact AH:  Regional agreement could limit town's growth, Alston says". Walker, T.  Post and Courier, Dec 9, 2005.
- The mayor said he isn't interested in signing a regional growth management agreement to discourage development in rural East Coopernear the Francis Marion National Forest if it means his town can't continue to grow.Eleven leaders of county and municipal governments and public utilities are reviewing the proposal to slow development on thousands of acres in and around the national forest."

"Francis Marion Pact Would Protect National Forest."  Coastal Conservation League
"The Francis Marion National Forest is a 250,000-acre ecological treasure just 15 minutes north of Mt. Pleasant. Large stands of the increasingly rare longleaf pine/ grassland ecosystem can be found here, complete with many threatened and endangered species.  Recently, Mt. Pleasant Mayor Harry Hallman and Charleston Mayor Joe Riley joined together with other public entities in the area to protect the forest from Sprawl."

Goodwin heart pine company
This manufacturer using longleaf pine has a website that introduces consumers to the ecosystem of the longleaf pine providing extensive background information of the virgin forest, naval stores, and history of the pine.

Image of longleaf alliance Google image search.

Sherpa Guides:  The Natural Georgia Series:  The Fire Forest
The website provides images and background to the conservation of, inhabitants, and cultural history of the longleaf pine ecosystem.

Health Forest Initiative Articles

"Wildfires 101".  Sierra Club
"It's time for the Forest Service to make protecting our communities from fire its number-one mission. It's time to stop pointing fingers and to find common ground. Whatever our differences with the timber industry, the Forest Service and the Bush Administration on other forest management issues, we should all agree that every community at risk deserves protection and that the highest priority is providing protection where it is needed most: in the Community Protection Zones.No community should be left at risk because the Forest Service has chosen to divert funds and personnel away from projects to secure Community Protection Zones and left workers in lower-priority backcountry areas."  The site also includes printable tip sheets and articles debunking Bush's Healthy Forest Initiative.

"Pros and Cons of healthy forest initiative"  Open Forum.  Bischel, DA., October 31, 2003. 
"The Healthy Forests Initiative establishes local control, putting forest management decisions in the hands of local foresters committed to sustaining entire forests -- wildlife, watersheds, fish, trees and soil. It also clears roadblocks that prevent much needed action on the ground, streamlining the appeals process and procedures within federal agencies that manage federal forestlands while encouraging public participation early in project planning....The Healthy Forest Initiative recognizes that we must thin our forests, yet not place an unnecessary burden on taxpayers. By allowing some trees, not old growth, to be harvested and used in products we depend on everyday, we can create jobs, revive rural communities and help fund the very process of returning our forests to health and grandeur. Now, thanks to bipartisan support, a more efficient system brings renewed hope for our national forests."

"Fireproofing the Forests"
Nash, Madeleine J. Time Magazine. August 18, 2003. 52-56.

This article describes how thinning out the younger, smaller trees might be beneficial to the health of a forest. It explains the process of thinning and describes some benefits and controversies surrounding the process.

"Healthy Forests Report".  March 3, 2006.
"The Department of the Interior and the USDA Forest Service implement the National Fire Plan (NFP) and Healthy Forests Initiative (HFI) to help save lives of firefighters and citizens and to reduce the risk of catastrophic fire to our communities, forests, and rangelands."  The report includes such areas of discussion and data presentation as byproducts of the forest, hazardous materials, and fire risks.

"Healthy Forests:  An inititative for wildfire prevention and stronger communities".  August 22, 2002.
From the Office of the President of the United States of America, this is an executive summary of forest fires.  "The American people, their property, and our environment, particularly the forests and rangelands of the West, are threatened by catastrophic fires and environmental degradation. Hundreds of millions of trees and invaluable habitat are destroyed each year by these severe wildfires.  These unnaturally extreme fires are causes by a crisis of deteriorating forest and rangeland health, the result of a century of well-intentioned but misguided land management.  Renewed efforts to restore our public lands to healthy conditions are needed."

"Treating Slash"  Northern Arizona University. Ecological Restoration Institute.  
Restoration thinning of ponderosa pine forests often results in large quantities of slash that can be challenging to treat. As is true of most aspects of forest restoration, there is no one-size-fits-all approach for dealing with slash. In fact, there are several options commonly used in southwestern forests, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. It is important for land managers to understand the long-term implications of slash removal methods on ecosystem processes. This paper presents standard methods for disposing of slash, as well as the ecological and logistical tradeoffs associated with each method."

"USDA Healthy Forest Initiative."
"President Bush has taken a series of actions to expedite high-priority fuel-reduction and forest restoration projects in our nation's forests and rangelands, including the December 2003 signing of the Healthy Forests Restoration Act. The primary goal of these projects is to reduce the fire danger and return our forests and rangelands to a healthier state."

"Effects of thinning treatment on fire behavior".  Northern Arizona University Ecological Restoration Institute. 
The article describes the threat of fire on the ponderosa pine forests.  Thinning of canopy and ladder fuels will reduce crown fire potential.  Prescribed fire is explained, necessary for reducing fuel loads and nutrient cycling.  Research and data are examined.

"California fires reignite forest thinning debate".  Steven Milloy.  Fox News.  October 31, 2003. 
Logging projects may be the suspicious motive for the "necessary" thinning of forests to prevent excessive burning.  The controversy is addressed in the article. 

"Sacred redwood
The link addresses Bush's "unhealthy" forest initiative, provides helpful redwood images, and describes forest watch along with endangered species.

 "Forest-thinning inititaive debated".  Kenworthy, T. USA-Today.  June 2, 2003.
This article promotes the skepticism necessary to look at forest thinning as a healthy initiative to prevent excessive destruction by forest fires.  A group of governors were described as touring areas where thinning appears to promote the need for forest thinning; however, areas such as the area of the Hayman fire of 2002, a different scene would be apparent.  The thinning controversy is addressed.

General Information about fire: Forest managment practice/role of fire in forest ecosystems

"Tiny Pine Beetles Wiping Out Forests" Struck, Doug, The Washington Post. 5 March 2006.
Canadian forests are under attack by a tiny pine beetle. The range of attack is increasing and the beetle is now being seen in places that it had never been in previously. This change is probably due to the increased warmth in the climate caused by global warming. The winter is no longer severe enough to kill off the beetle.

"Controlled Burning in Forests Helps Restore Habitat" Wiggers, Ernie. The Post and Courier. 9 March 2006.
This article focuses on the needs and benefits of using controlled burning in our forests. The suggestion is that it helps to maintain the ecosystem of the forest. Controlled burning also reduces the accumulation of forest debris, which fuels catastrophic fires.

"Seeing the forests for their green:  Economic benefits of forest protection, recreatation, and restoration".  Sierra Club. 
The executive summary is organized in lesson format to educate the public about the importance of the timber industry to the economy.

"Forest Fires:  Beyond the heat and hype".  Sierra Club.
Through education, the Sierra Club hopes to eliminate the fear and risk of forest fires.  The benefits of fire are also addressed.

"Restoring America's Forests".  Sierra Club.  July 18, 2002.
The value of American forests and the need to protect and renew them is addressed in this executive summary.

"A citizen's call for ecological forest restoration:  forest restoration principles and criteria".  DellaSala, D, Martin, A, Spivak, R, Schulke, T., Bird, B, Criley, M, van Daalen, C, Kreilick, J, Brown R, and Aplet, G.  Ecological Restoration, 21: 1  March 2003. 
The need to restore forest ecosystems after the degradation of logging, fire suppression, road building, live-stock grazing, mining, and invasion by exotic species is addressed. 

"Financial results of Ponderosa pine forest restoration in southwestern Colorado".  Lynch, DL.  USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-22. 2001.
"From 1996 to 1998, the Ponderosa Pine Partnership conducted an experiment forest restoration project on 493 acres of small diameter ponderosa pine in the San Juan National Forest, Monetzuma County, Colorado.  The ecological basis and the financial analysis for this project are discussed.  Specific financial results of the project including products sold, revenue collected, harvesting-costs incurred, and profits or losses realized are reported.  Restoration costs are also compared with fire suppression costs experienced both in Colorado and nationwide.  Using data collected since the conclusion of the project, the future potential for financing fire restoration in southwestern Colorado is explored."

"Fuels treatments and forest restoration:  An analysis of benefits."  Ecological Restoration Institute.   May 2003.
"In contemporary ponderosa pine forests throughout the Southwest the need to thin dense stands in order to reduce the risk of catastrophic fires has become evident.  Numerous thinning prescriptions have been implemented.  While many prescriptions focus solely on lowering fire risk by removing ladder fuels and reducing crown connectivity, others explicitly aim to alter both forest structure and functioning.  This publication examines the benefits of restoration that can lower fire damage danger-while also increasing the overall biological diversity and long-term health of treatment areas."

"The road-ripper's guide to wildland road removal."  Bagley, S.  1998 Wildlands Center for Prevent ing Roads.
The chapters to this report include Why Remove Roads?, Understanding roads, watersheds, and soil erosion, and understanding road removal.  This is done in efforts to heal forest ecosystems. 

"Should we protect private homes from forest fires?"  Denver Post Editorial.  August 16, 2001, Baker, WL.
Federal land management agencies have allocated approximately $2 billion to the issue.  Fire suppression can harm ecosystems.  The editorial asserts that federal funding should be directed towards stopping irresponsible development near forest ecosystems. 

"Effects of prescribed fire in Ponderosa pine on key wildlife habitat componenets:  Preliminary results and a method for monitoring."  Randall-Parker, T.  and Miller, R. ISDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-181.  2002.
The effects of prescribed burns were monitored in ponderosa pine forests on snags, down logs, oaks, and old ponderosa pine trees using a

"Pre-fire treatment effects and post-fire forest dynamics on the Rodeo-Chediski burn area, Arizona".  Strom, BA.  Northern Arizona University, May 2005. 
Excerpt from findings:  "Prescribed burning without cutting was associated with reduced burn severity, but the combination of cutting and prescribed burning had the greatest ameliorative effect.  Increasing degree of treatment was associated with an increase in the number of live trees and a decrease in the extremity of fire behavior as indicated by crown base height and bole char height."

"The Society for Ecological Restoration International Primer on Ecological Restoration". 
This paper educates the public on the definition of ecological restoration and the effects on ecosystems along with the way restoration is accomplished.

"A Ponderosa Natural Area Reveals Its Secrets
"Monument Canyon Research Natural Area preserves an unlogged 259-hectare stand of old-growth ponderosa pine in the Jemez Mountains of New Mexico. This preserve, established in 1932, is the oldest research natural area in the state."  The changes in the research area are discusses, such as the death of the older trees as they compete with newer saplings. 

Ecological Restoration Institute Website, Northern Arizona University
"The Ecological Restoration Institute (ERI) at Northern Arizona University (NAU) is nationally recognized for mobilizing the unique assets of a University to help solve the problem of unnaturally severe wildfire and degraded forest health. The ERI focuses principally on landscapes where unprecedented wildfires, insect infestations and disease outbreaks threaten ecological and human community sustainability. The ERI's role is to assist land management agencies and communities with their collaborative efforts in healing our forest landscapes by providing comprehensive focused studies, monitoring and evaluation research, and technical support. Our goal is not just discovery of knowledge, but work that makes a difference on the ground in our western forests."  - is a multi-agency effort to involve homeowners, community leaders, property owners, among others, to use resources to reduce the risks of forest fires. 

"Mycorrhizal management:  A look beneath the surface at plant establishment and growth".  Michael P. Amaranthus, Ph.D. This article originally appeared in The Spring

1999 issue of Florida Landscape Architecture Quarterly. 
"Little things run the world. This is especially true when it comes to getting plants established. Under natural conditions plants live in close association with soil organisms called mycorrhizal fungi. These fungi colonize plant roots and extend the root system into the surrounding soil. (Figure 1.) Estimates of amounts of mycorrhizal filaments present in healthy soil are astonishing. Several miles of filaments can be present in less than a thimbleful of soil associated with vigorously growing plants. The relationship is beneficial because the plant enjoys improved nutrient and water uptake, disease resistance and superior survival and growth."

"NOVA online:  Fire Wars:  How plants use fire (and are used by it)"  Pyne, SJ. 
These rhythms mean that fires thrive in a kind of habitat. Fires in grasslands burn one way; fires in rainforest another; fires in temperate conifers in several ways, sometimes skipping along the surface, sometimes soaring through dense crowns. Indeed, varieties of each kind of fire exist. Even grassfires may burn with the wind or against it; they may creep and smolder or rage at the pace of a galloping horse. But rough patterns do emerge, and biota adapt to these patterns, much as they would to patterns of rainfall."

"Landscape ecology of large, infrequent fires in Yellowstone Park".  Teaching Issues and Experiments in Ecology.  
The Ecological Society of America established a new journal, Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, in 2003. Frontiers is intended for a wide audience and includes synthetic articles with particular relevance to environmental issues. Frontiers Issues to Teach Ecology is designed to help ecology faculty use selected articles in ecology courses plus do classroom research on their teaching.  This specific article is Turner, M.G., W.H. Romme, and D.B. Tinker. 2003. Surprises and lessons from the 1988 Yellowstone fires. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. 1 (7): 351-358.

"Fire Management at Carolina Sandhills NWR".  US Fish and Wildlife Service.
A key aspect of the Carolina Sandhills NWR is its role as a demonstration project for the protection and enhancement of the longleaf pine/wiregrass ecosystem that covers much of the Refuge. Fire is one of their most important management tools. Prescribed burning is conducted several times each year on different portions of the Refuge.This mimics the natural fires that historically burned through longleaf pine/wiregrass areas on a three to five-year interval. Those natural fires were of low intensity, fueled by grasses and pine litter. The prescribed fires used at Carolina Sandhills NWR suppress the growth of hardwood trees, creating an open park-like situation preferred by the red-cockaded woodpecker (RCW) and many other animals and plants native to this ecosystem."

"Fire regimes in Sierrian mixed-conifer forests".  USGS.  Swetnam, T, and Baisan, C.
The article discusses fire ecology and using the study of tree rings to learn more about the effects of fire on a forest ecosystem.  Effective data images to describe findings are also included.